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TypeScript Twoslash can be seen as a pre-processor that enhances your code-samples. It is a markup language for JavaScript and TypeScript.

It leverages the compiler APIs used by text editors to offer type-driven hover information, precise error messages, and type callouts.


One of the key reasons for making Twoslash is the ability to use the TypeScript compiler to pull out type information about your code mechanically. Twoslash comes with two different ways to query your code: ^? and ^|.

Extract Type

Using ^? you can pull out type information about a particular identifier in the line of code above it.

import { getHighlighterCore } from 'shiki/core'
const shiki: HighlighterCore
= await getHighlighterCore({})


Using ^| you can pull out information about a what the auto-complete looks like at a particular location.

type Example = { apple: 'foo' | 'bar' | 'baz', ant: number, anchovy: string }
const example: Example = { a: 'foo' }
apple ==='


You can use ^^^ to highlight a range of the line above it.

function add(foo: number, bar: number) {
  return foo + bar


Every Twoslash code sample needs to be a complete TypeScript program realistically, basically it needs to compile. Quite often to make it compiler, there is a bunch of code which isn't relevant to the user. This can be extracted out of the code sample via // ---cut--- which removes all of the code above it from the output.


Cut works after TypeScript has generated the project and pulled out all the editor information (like identifiers, queries, highlights etc) and then amends all of their offsets and lines to re-fit the smaller output. What your user sees is everything below the ---cut---.

The below example only shows a single line.


The example below shows the last two lines, but to TypeScript it was a program with 2 files and all of the IDE information is hooked up correctly across the files.

This is why // @filename: [file] is specifically the only Twoslash command which is not removed, because if it's not relevant it can be ---cut--- away.

import { helloWorld } from "./a"


The sibling to ---cut--- which trims anything after the sigil:

<Context.Provider value="bar">
  Hello world


Most of the time, unless you are the TypeScript team, you want to avoid errors in your code samples. Strictly speaking, this usually means setting the right compiler flags and environment in each code sample.

Some times however, you do want to raise a compiler error - to show incorrect states. In those cases, twoslash has a way to mark the compiler errors you expect.

@errors: [num]

All TypeScript compiler errors have a number, this number is relatively arbitrary and can change between TypeScript versions. For our case these numbers are useful in declaring what we expect to see.

Taking this example:

const a = "123"
a = 132
## Errors were thrown in the sample, but not included in an error tag These errors were not marked as being expected: 2588. Expected: // @errors: 2588 Compiler Errors: index.ts [2588] 16 - Cannot assign to 'a' because it is a constant.

TypeScript gives the following error: Cannot assign to 'a' because it is a constant. [2588].

Which the code sample does not reference, and thus the codesample has raise the mis-match as an 'exception'. Shiki Twoslash then shows a pretty error, and will set the process exit code to 1 failing any builds. You can use // @errors: 2588 to tell Shiki Twoslash that you expect this error to occur:

const a = "123"
a = 132
Cannot assign to 'a' because it is a constant.


Sometimes you have needs in which a broken TypeScript build is OK, a good example of this is using a completion query // ^| which requires a broken TypeScript project to work. You can use // @noErrors to supress all errors in a code sample, and not have them show inline.

const a = "123"
a = 132


Twoslash code samples aren't limited to creating a single file, by using // @filename: [file] you can write any file to the virtual file system used by TypeScript to power your code samples.

@filename: [file]

After seeing @filename Twoslash creates a new virtual file-system file and adds the new lines to that. You can't edit a file after it was created, but you can overwrite it.

For example, if you want to quickly fake a node module:

// @filename: node_modules/@types/mylib/index.d.ts
export function doit(): string
// @filename: index.ts
import { doit } from "mylib"

This code sample sets up the types for a non-existent npm module, and TypeScript picks it up as the definitions in the same way it would in a non-virtual TypeScript project.

// @filename: app.json
{ "version": "23.2.3" }
// @filename: index.ts
import appSettings from "./app.json"
"version": string

This code sets up a JSON object which can be imported in a TypeScript file.

import React from "react"
import MultiFileDocs from "./MultiFileDocs.mdx"
export default () => <MultiFileDocs/>

External Types

Unless you're teaching TypeScript/JavaScript, you're probably going to want to import libraries into your code samples.

Twoslash works by faking a virtual file system over your existing file system. This means any @types or libraries with TypeScript definitions should work out of the box with no config.


Setting up globals is a little bit more complex, but not drastically. You need to use the triple slash reference which adds a particular library to the global scope.

import { writeFileSync } from "fs" 
writeFileSync("myfile.txt", "// TODO")


import { getHighlighterCore } from 'shiki/core'
const shiki = await getHighlighterCore({})
const a = 1
Custom log message
const b = 1
Custom error message
const c = 1
Custom warning message
const d = 1
Custom annotation message

Compiler flags

// @allowJs
Allow JavaScript files to be a part of your program. Use the `checkJS` option to get errors from these files..
// @allowSyntheticDefaultImports
Allow 'import x from y' when a module doesn't have a default export..
// @allowUmdGlobalAccess
Allow accessing UMD globals from modules..
// @allowUnreachableCode
Disable error reporting for unreachable code..
// @allowUnusedLabels
Disable error reporting for unused labels..
// @alwaysStrict
Ensure 'use strict' is always emitted..
// @assumeChangesOnlyAffectDirectDependencies
Have recompiles in projects that use `incremental` and `watch` mode assume that changes within a file will only affect files directly depending on it..
// @baseUrl
Specify the base directory to resolve non-relative module names..
// @charset
No longer supported. In early versions, manually set the text encoding for reading files..
// @checkJs
Enable error reporting in type-checked JavaScript files..
// @composite
Enable constraints that allow a TypeScript project to be used with project references..
// @declaration
Generate .d.ts files from TypeScript and JavaScript files in your project..
// @declarationDir
Specify the output directory for generated declaration files..
// @declarationMap
Create sourcemaps for d.ts files..
// @diagnostics
Output compiler performance information after building..
// @disableReferencedProjectLoad
Reduce the number of projects loaded automatically by TypeScript..
// @disableSizeLimit
Remove the 20mb cap on total source code size for JavaScript files in the TypeScript language server..
// @disableSolutionSearching
Opt a project out of multi-project reference checking when editing..
// @disableSourceOfProjectReferenceRedirect
Disable preferring source files instead of declaration files when referencing composite projects.
// @downlevelIteration
Emit more compliant, but verbose and less performant JavaScript for iteration..
// @emitBOM
Emit a UTF-8 Byte Order Mark (BOM) in the beginning of output files..
// @emitDeclarationOnly
Only output d.ts files and not JavaScript files..
// @emitDecoratorMetadata
Emit design-type metadata for decorated declarations in source files..
// @esModuleInterop
Emit additional JavaScript to ease support for importing CommonJS modules. This enables `allowSyntheticDefaultImports` for type compatibility..
// @exactOptionalPropertyTypes
Interpret optional property types as written, rather than adding 'undefined'..
// @experimentalDecorators
Enable experimental support for TC39 stage 2 draft decorators..
// @explainFiles
Print files read during the compilation including why it was included..
// @extendedDiagnostics
Output more detailed compiler performance information after building..
// @forceConsistentCasingInFileNames
Ensure that casing is correct in imports..
// @generateCpuProfile
Emit a v8 CPU profile of the compiler run for debugging..
// @importHelpers
Allow importing helper functions from tslib once per project, instead of including them per-file..
// @importsNotUsedAsValues
Specify emit/checking behavior for imports that are only used for types.
// @incremental
Enable incremental compilation.
// @inlineSourceMap
Include sourcemap files inside the emitted JavaScript..
// @inlineSources
Include source code in the sourcemaps inside the emitted JavaScript..
// @isolatedModules
Ensure that each file can be safely transpiled without relying on other imports..
// @jsx
Specify what JSX code is generated..
// @jsxFactory
Specify the JSX factory function used when targeting React JSX emit, e.g. 'React.createElement' or 'h'.
// @jsxFragmentFactory
Specify the JSX Fragment reference used for fragments when targeting React JSX emit e.g. 'React.Fragment' or 'Fragment'..
// @jsxImportSource
Specify module specifier used to import the JSX factory functions when using `jsx: react-jsx*`.`.
// @keyofStringsOnly
Make keyof only return strings instead of string, numbers or symbols. Legacy option..
// @lib
Specify a set of bundled library declaration files that describe the target runtime environment..
// @listEmittedFiles
Print the names of emitted files after a compilation..
// @listFiles
Print all of the files read during the compilation..
// @mapRoot
Specify the location where debugger should locate map files instead of generated locations..
// @maxNodeModuleJsDepth
Specify the maximum folder depth used for checking JavaScript files from `node_modules`. Only applicable with `allowJs`..
// @module
Specify what module code is generated..
// @moduleResolution
Specify how TypeScript looks up a file from a given module specifier..
// @newLine
Set the newline character for emitting files..
// @noEmit
Disable emitting file from a compilation..
// @noEmitHelpers
Disable generating custom helper functions like `__extends` in compiled output..
// @noEmitOnError
Disable emitting files if any type checking errors are reported..
// @noErrorTruncation
Disable truncating types in error messages..
// @noFallthroughCasesInSwitch
Enable error reporting for fallthrough cases in switch statements..
// @noImplicitAny
Enable error reporting for expressions and declarations with an implied `any` type...
// @noImplicitOverride
Add `undefined` to a type when accessed using an index..
// @noImplicitReturns
Enable error reporting for codepaths that do not explicitly return in a function..
// @noImplicitThis
Enable error reporting when `this` is given the type `any`..
// @noImplicitUseStrict
Disable adding 'use strict' directives in emitted JavaScript files..
// @noLib
Disable including any library files, including the default lib.d.ts..
// @noPropertyAccessFromIndexSignature
Enforces using indexed accessors for keys declared using an indexed type.
// @noResolve
Disallow `import`s, `require`s or ``s from expanding the number of files TypeScript should add to a project..
// @noStrictGenericChecks
Disable strict checking of generic signatures in function types..
// @noUncheckedIndexedAccess
Include 'undefined' in index signature results.
// @noUnusedLocals
Enable error reporting when a local variables aren't read..
// @noUnusedParameters
Raise an error when a function parameter isn't read.
// @out
Deprecated setting. Use `outFile` instead..
// @outDir
Specify an output folder for all emitted files..
// @outFile
Specify a file that bundles all outputs into one JavaScript file. If `declaration` is true, also designates a file that bundles all .d.ts output..
// @paths
Specify a set of entries that re-map imports to additional lookup locations..
// @plugins
List of language service plugins..
// @preserveConstEnums
Disable erasing `const enum` declarations in generated code..
// @preserveSymlinks
Disable resolving symlinks to their realpath. This correlates to the same flag in node..
// @preserveWatchOutput
Disable wiping the console in watch mode.
// @pretty
Enable color and formatting in output to make compiler errors easier to read.
// @reactNamespace
Specify the object invoked for `createElement`. This only applies when targeting `react` JSX emit..
// @removeComments
Disable emitting comments..
// @resolveJsonModule
Enable importing .json files.
// @rootDir
Specify the root folder within your source files..
// @rootDirs
Allow multiple folders to be treated as one when resolving modules..
// @skipDefaultLibCheck
Skip type checking .d.ts files that are included with TypeScript..
// @skipLibCheck
Skip type checking all .d.ts files..
// @sourceMap
Create source map files for emitted JavaScript files..
// @sourceRoot
Specify the root path for debuggers to find the reference source code..
// @strict
Enable all strict type-checking options..
// @strictBindCallApply
Check that the arguments for `bind`, `call`, and `apply` methods match the original function..
// @strictFunctionTypes
When assigning functions, check to ensure parameters and the return values are subtype-compatible..
// @strictNullChecks
When type checking, take into account `null` and `undefined`..
// @strictPropertyInitialization
Check for class properties that are declared but not set in the constructor..
// @stripInternal
Disable emitting declarations that have `@internal` in their JSDoc comments..
// @suppressExcessPropertyErrors
Disable reporting of excess property errors during the creation of object literals..
// @suppressImplicitAnyIndexErrors
Suppress `noImplicitAny` errors when indexing objects that lack index signatures..
// @target
Set the JavaScript language version for emitted JavaScript and include compatible library declarations..
// @traceResolution
Log paths used during the `moduleResolution` process..
// @tsBuildInfoFile
Specify the folder for .tsbuildinfo incremental compilation files..
// @typeRoots
Specify multiple folders that act like `./node_modules/@types`..
// @types
Specify type package names to be included without being referenced in a source file..
// @useDefineForClassFields
Emit ECMAScript-standard-compliant class fields..
// @useUnknownInCatchVariables
Type catch clause variables as 'unknown' instead of 'any'..